Wars[ edit ] Despite the beginnings of rapid demographic and economic recovery after the Black Death of the 14th century, the gains of the previous half-century were to be jeopardised by a further protracted series of conflicts, the Italian Wars —where French efforts to gain dominance ended in the increased power of the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperors of Germany. The medieval division of society into "those who fought nobilitythose who prayed clergyand those who worked everyone else " still held strong and warfare was considered a domain of the nobles. Charles VIII marched into Italy with a core force consisting of noble horsemen and non-noble foot soldiers, but in time the role of the latter grew stronger so that by the middle of the 16th century, France had a standing army of cavalry and 30, infantry. The military was reorganized from a system of legions recruited by province Norman legion, Gascon legion, etc.
Proto-parliamentary institutions[ edit ] Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. This is often referred to as tribalism.
Some scholars argue that in ancient Mesopotamia there was a primitive democratic government where the kings were assessed by council.
However, Athenian democracy was not representative, but rather direct, and therefore the ekklesia was different from the parliamentary system. The Roman republic had legislative assemblieswho had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of new statutesthe carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, and the creation or dissolution of alliances.
This was a medieval organisation composed of aristocrats and bishops but because of the seriousness of the situation and the need to maximise political support, Alfonso IX took the decision to also call the representatives of the urban middle class from the most important cities of the kingdom to the assembly.
Particularly, in the Principality of Cataloniainthe Catalan Courts Corts Catalanes became one of the first parliamentary bodies of Europe that officially banned the royal power to create legislation unilaterally.
In practice, King George I 's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole. The gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, and in deciding who the king could ask to form a government.
By the nineteenth century, the Great Reform Act of led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding who was prime minister and the complexion of the government.
Hence the use of phrases like Her Majesty's government or His Excellency's government. Such a system became particularly prevalent in older British dominions, many of whom had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament; examples include AustraliaNew ZealandCanadathe Irish Free State and the Union of South Africa.
Some of these parliaments evolved, were reformed from, or were initially developed as distinct from their original British model: Napoleon III offered attempts at some degree of parliamentary control of the executive, though few regarded his regime as genuinely parliamentary and democratic.
A presidential system existed under the short-lived Second Republic. The modern Fifth Republic system combines aspects of presidentialism and parliamentarianism.
Parliamentarism in France differed from parliamentarism in the United Kingdom in several ways. First, the French National Assembly had more power over the cabinet than the British Parliament had over its cabinet.
Second, France had shorter lived premierships. In the seventy years of the Third RepublicFrance had over fifty premierships. In Maurice Duverger claimed that the Fifth Republic was a government in which the president was supreme, a virtual king.
More recent analyses of France's system have downgraded the importance of the French president. During cohabitationwhen the National Assembly of France and presidency are controlled by opposite parties, the French president is rather weak.
Thus, some scholars see the French system as not one that is half presidential and half parliamentary, but as one that alternates between presidentialism and parliamentarism. The spread of parliamentarism in Europe[ edit ] Democracy and parliamentarism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War Ipartially imposed by the democratic victors, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republic and the new Austrian Republic.
Nineteenth century urbanisationindustrial revolution and, modernism had already fueled the political left's struggle for democracy and parliamentarism for a long time. In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, democratic reforms were often seen as a means to counter popular revolutionary currents.
Thus established democratic regimes suffered however from limited popular support, in particular from the political right. Another obstacle was the political parties' unpreparedness for long-term commitments to coalition cabinets in the multi-party democracies on the European continent.
The resulting "Minority-Parliamentarism" led to frequent defeats in votes of confidence and almost perpetual political crisis which further diminished the standing of democracy and parliamentarism in the eyes of the electorate. Finland is sometimes given as a counter-example, where a presidential democracy was established after a failed revolution and more than three months of bitter Civil War in Finland The deep religious divisions in France between Protestants (Huguenots) and Catholics almost allowed Spain to conquer France.
Hungary and the Balkans that the Ottoman Turks had conquered in the early 16th Century. (c) seafaring power of major importance. England's wealth and power continued to grow throughout the century, .
Start studying Chapter 13 England and France in the 17th Century. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
in the war with Spain, England needed funds that Parliament didn't want to give so Charles levied these. his policies transformed France into a major commercial power.
Liberalism is a political and economic doctrine that emphasizes individual autonomy, equality of opportunity, and the protection of individual rights (primarily to life, liberty, and property), originally against the state and later against both the state and private economic actors, including businesses.
Why was Spain much more powerful than Britain in the s? Update Cancel. While Spain's power in the 16th century had many Ferdinand and Isabella were the first kings in Europe to unify a state of the proportions of Spain. At that time England, France did not have such a size nor they had the same militar power as the Catholic Kings.
Overview. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern plombier-nemours.coming in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
AP Euro Chapter 16 and Review for the test. STUDY. PLAY. early eighteenth century example of ties among politics, architecture and urban development is St.
Petersburg. True. T/F: The dominant artistic style of the seventeenth century was Gothic Two ethnic groups in Spain whose expulsion in the 15th and 16th centuries led to a.