Are we doing kids a disservice by letting them play on a daily basis?
Research on Single Parenting and Academic Achievement Research on single-parent families has changed over the years.
During different periods, research in the area has followed one of two models: Dating back to the s, the Family Deficit Model views the nuclear or two-parent family as the ideal family structure.
According to this model, single-parent families have a negative impact on children simply because they do not have a nuclear family structure [7; 13]. Research using the Family Deficit Model begins with the assumption that single parenting is bad for children, and the results of these studies typically support this assumption.
Indeed, some studies using the Family Deficit Model minimize or overlook the influence economics and other background factors have on academic achievement rather than alter this research model [7; 13]. Risk and Protective Factor Model. Developed in the early s, the Risk and Protective Factor Model does not regard single-parent families as irregular [12; 13] because the foundation for the model is that all families have both strengths and weaknesses .
Rather than view single parenting as the cause of negative outcomes for children in these families, the Risk and Protective Factor Model describes family structure as one of many risk factors. Risk factors are either background characteristics or life events that may have a negative impact on child development.
Protective factors are characteristics and events that positively influence children and help limit the impact of risk factors [12; 13]. Essentially, risk factors are the weaknesses and protective factors are the strengths of any given family.
According to this model, single parenting can be both a risk factor and a protective factor for children in this type of family. Personality, availability of social supports, and family cohesion are often identified as categories of factors that can impact a child positively or negatively.
Social support availability factors are whether or not the child has advocates at home, at school, and elsewhere in the community.
Family cohesion factors also include life events such as divorce, remarriage, death, and other changes that can influence child development [11; 13]. Elements of each of the three categories can serve as either risk or protective factors.
For instance, researchers regard family size as a risk factor when there are four or more children, close in age, within the same household, but a protective factor in families with fewer than four children or when children are spaced 3 or more years apart.
Furthermore, risk is cumulative , meaning that children who have a combination of risk factors such as poverty, many siblings close in age, and a single parent are at greater risk of poor academic performance and other negative child development outcomes than children from single-parent homes with higher incomes and fewer siblings.
The more risk factors children have, the more likely they will experience negative outcomes as a result. Risk factors can lead to negative results, but the presence of risk factors does not guarantee poor outcomes [12; 13]. Indeed, protective factors mediate and limit the impact risk factors have on academic achievement and other aspects of child development.
According to research in this area, protective factors include high self-esteem, strong social support at home and at school, low rates of criticism from parental figures, positive parent mental health, college-educated parents, high income, and parenting strategies that effectively address high-risk situations.Teaching with Poverty in Mind.
by Eric Jensen. Table of Contents. Chapter 2. How Poverty Affects Behavior and Academic Performance.
In Chapter 1, we . In-depth description of narcissistic parents and a list of their controlling behavior traits. Read the 6 characteristics of toxic parenting.
Tips, articles and resources for parents and children. academic performance of pupils from single parent homes and those from two parent homes. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that single parenting has negative impact on a child’s. References: The effects of video games on school achievement.
Borgonovi F. Video gaming and gender differences in digital and printed reading performance among 15 . Single-sex education (teaching boys and girls in separate classrooms or schools) is an old approach that’s gaining new momentum. While single-sex education has long existed in many private schools, it’s a relatively new option for public schools.