British Dictionary definitions for nature nature noun the fundamental qualities of a person or thing; identity or essential character often capital, esp when personified the whole system of the existence, arrangement, forces, and events of all physical life that are not controlled by man all natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations a wild primitive state untouched by man or civilization natural unspoilt scenery or countryside disposition or temperament tendencies, desires, or instincts governing behaviour the normal biological needs or urges of the body sort; kind; character the real appearance of a person or thinga painting very true to nature accepted standards of basic morality or behaviour biology the complement of genetic material that partly determines the structure of an organism; genotypeCompare nurture def. Nature and nurture have been contrasted since
If the person has an attribution of ability internal, no control as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning Comparison of cognitive development theories, he or she will decrease appropriate learning behavior.
If the person has an external attribution, then nothing the person can do will help that individual in a learning situation i. In this case, there is nothing to be done by the individual when learning problems occur. The implication is that if we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium, this will in turn lead to the individual changing his or her behavior which in turn will lead to a change in thought patterns which in turn leads to more change in behavior.
According to the Webster's, cognitive dissonance is a psychological conflict resulting from incongruous beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously. Weiner points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation i. Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of a person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life.
Thus, motivation is internal.
C- Cognitive Developmental Theories Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget,According to Piaget, children are motivated to develop their cognitive or mental abilities in a predictable set of stages: Sensorimotor stage Infancy, 0 to 2 years. In this period which has 6 stagesintelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols.
Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age memory. Physical development mobility allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities.
Some symbollic language abilities are developed at the end of this stage. Pre-operational stage Toddler and Early Childhood, years. In this period which has two substagesintelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner.
Egocentric thinking predominates Concrete operational stage Elementary and early adolescence, years. In this stage characterized by 7 types of conservation: Operational thinking develops mental actions that are reversible.
In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought.
It is also recommended that teachers use a wide variety of concrete experiences to motivate the child e. Zone of proximal development Lev Vygotsky, The Zone of Proximal Development is the distance between the learner's actual developmental level and the level of potential development; it is the gap between what we are trying to teach and the current state of development in that area.
As learners become more proficient, able to complete tasks on their own that they could not initially do without assistance, the guidance can be withdrawn. Students' needs, goals and interests must be the starting point if motivation is to occur. The main drive to do well comes from avoiding a negative outcome rather than approaching a positive one.
In the context of school learning, which involves operating in a relatively structured environment, students with mastery goals outperform students with either performance or social goals.
However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful. One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure more often associated with performance goals or achieve success more often associated with mastery goals.
In the former situation, the individual is more likely to select easy or difficult tasks, thereby either achieving success or having a good excuse for why failure occurred. In the latter situation, the individual is more likely to select moderately difficult tasks which will provide an interesting challenge, but still keep the high expectations for success.
E- Psychoanalytic Theories The psychoanalytic theories of motivation propose a variety of fundamental influences: Freud suggested that all action or behavior is a result of internal, biological instincts that are classified into two categories:believed that cognitive development was a product of the mind “achieved through observation and experimentation whereas Vygotsky viewed it as a social process, achieved through interaction with more knowledgeable members of the culture” (Rummel, , p.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 1 Comparison of Change Theories Alicia Kritsonis. Theories of Explanation. Within the philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what an explanation is.
Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. A Comparison and Contrast of Freud and Erickson’s Developmental Theories The issue of human development has been a pertinent one within the human society.
In this respect, there are several developmental theories that have been forwarded by some of the world’s most renowned psychologists. In this essay on cognitive development I will compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, who were both influential in forming a more scientific approach to analysing the cognitive development process of the child active construction of knowledge.
The theory of Andreas Demetriou. The models above do not systematically elaborate on the differences between domains, the role of self-awareness in development, and the role of other aspects of processing efficiency, such as speed of processing and cognitive plombier-nemours.com the theory proposed by Andreas Demetriou, with his colleagues, all of these factors are systematically studied.