This document, known as the "Blue Book", and its successors documented the CAFR accounting structure and provided standardization and example documents. Bythe various levels of government —federal, state, local and municipal—each began producing a CAFR to catalog an accurate picture of institutional funds, enterprise or financial holdings, assets and total investment incomes for those government and nongovernmental entities using the report. This measure is above and beyond the budget process and replaced what was regularly an "off-the-books" practice called the "general fixed-asset account group". General Purpose government "budget" reports did not reflect accounting of this financial data, only reporting on the budget or "rainy day" funds or pension fund investments.
History[ edit ] According to data extracted from U. Census manuscripts, compared to White women, Black women were more likely to become teenage mothers, stay single and have marriage instability, and were thus much more likely to live in female-headed single-parent homes.
The Case For National Action". Census reports reveal that betweenmarried households consisting of two-parent homes were the most widespread form of African-American family structures.
Single-parent homes, on the other hand, remained relatively stable until ; when they rose dramatically. Census data from reveal that more African-American families consisted of single mothers than married households with both parents. African-American families at a glance[ edit ] African-American nuclear families[ edit ] Andrew Billingsley's research on the African-American nuclear family is organized into three groups: The African-American segmented nuclear I unmarried mother and children and II unmarried father and children family structures are defined as a parent—child relationship.
Billingsley's research found that the extended family structure is predominantly in the segmented I sub-structured families. This structure also has the incipient, simple, segmented I, and segmented II sub-structures. This non-family household contains no relatives.
Franklin Frazier has described the current African-American family structure as having two models, one in which the father is viewed as a patriarch and the sole breadwinner, and one where the mother takes on a matriarchal role in the place of a fragmented household. This full-time job of household responsibilities is often the second job that an African-American woman takes on.
Wilson also notes that this responsibility that the mother has in the married family determines the life satisfaction of the family as a whole.
According to Brown, this lack of a second party income has resulted in the majority of African American children raised in single mother households having a poor upbringing.
Spencer's research also concludes that African-American children have become subject to inconsistencies in society based on their skin color.
According to Jones, the reason these extended family members are included in having a necessary role in the family is because they play a key role in assuring the health and well-being of the children.
Some researchers theorize that the low economic statuses of the newly freed slaves in led to the current family structure for African Americans.
These researchers suggest that extreme poverty has increased the destabilization of African American families while others point to high female labor participation, few job opportunities for black males, and small differences between wages for men and women that have decreased marriage stability for black families.
Rather, in an census, there was a positive relationship between the number of black single-parent homes and per-capita county wealth.
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Traditional African influences[ edit ] Other explanations incorporate social mechanisms for the specific patterns of the African American family structure. Some researchers point to differences in norms regarding the need to live with a spouse and with children for African-Americans.
Patterns seen in traditional African cultures are also considered a source for the current trends in single-parent homes. As noted by Antonio McDaniel, the reliance of African-American families on kinship networks for financial, emotional, and social support can be traced back to African cultures, where the emphasis was on extended families, rather than the nuclear family.
As a result, slaves were culturally adaptive and formed family structures that best suit their environment and situation.Latest News PIANGO receives special UN status. 03rd October The Pacific Islands Association of Non-Governmental Organisation (PIANGO) has been .
Financial Report of the United States Government - Guide to Understanding the Annual Financial Report of the United States Government. HTML Version of the Financial Report of the United States Government. All files below are in PDF format Complete Report ( MB) By Chapter.
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Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting, Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems, Edition. IES. Among the most important types of communication is the annual financial report, which presents the financial position, operating results, and cash flows for a particular accounting period.
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